In simple words, Apohan approximately means analysis. In fact, there is no equivalent English word.
This word occurs in the 15th Chapter of Geeta.
श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, अध्याय १५, श्लोक १५:
सर्वस्य च अहम् हृदि संनिविष्ट: मत्तः स्मृति: ज्ञानम् अपोहनम् च ।
वेदै: च सर्वै: अहम् एव वेद्यः वेदान्तकृत् वेदवित् एव च अहम्॥
Meaning: I am permanently enshrined in the heart of everyone; I am the source of memory, knowledge and Apohan (ability to think intellectually). I am the object under exploration of all the knowledge bodies; I am the author of the knowledge bodies and I am the one who has all the comprehension of all the knowledge bodies.
This chapter deals with the most complex subject in Geeta, i.e. creation and operation of this universe, types of entities in it & their interrelations, the objectives of human life and a means to achieve them including the supreme nature of Him and His perspective of the universe. In this otherwise prose, dry, arid, complex chapter, this is the only stanza, in poetic tone, stating the relationship between the God and the human beings.
In the Indian tradition, it is said that it is expected that one knows most of the important traditional sciences and scriptures. If it is not possible for one to read all of this, then one is expected to have read the epic of Mahabharat. If Mahabharat is too large of a volume to complete, one should at least read Geeta. If one can’t find time to do even that, one should spare some time to read the 15th Chapter of Gita i.e. Purushottam Yoga. And if even it is not possible to read & comprehend this chapter, then one should at least have the 15 shloka (stanza) in the chapter by heart.
There are three stages of human cognition:
Memory: The third is storage of knowledge in the form of memory which can be consciously or subconsciously retrieved as required.
Knowledge: The second stage is storage of thoughts in the form of knowledge which is logical, complete, consistent and useful.
Apohan: The first stage is the formulation of a thought itself through Apohan or the founding elements of the whole cognitive system. Thus Apohan can be said to a common faculty for cognition, consciousness, intellect, logic, thinking, reasoning and rationality.
Meaning of the word Apohan in various branches of knowledge:
In management parlance, Apohan means analysis who are deep query.
In logic, Apohan means a deduction by elimination of impossible & infeasible choices.
Since Apohan deals with the first stage or primordium of a thought, in philosophy, it is treated as the reservoir of from where human cognition and thinking originates. For example, what is void space to a physical object in it, what is silence to a sound in it, the same is Apohan to human intellect.
If the existence or universe is divided into two parts, the first – the dead matter, energy, space, time, etc.; and the second – intelligent life in it, the thing that turns the dead universe into a living, meaningful, intelligent place is called as Apohan in spirituality. Thus, the cognition, consciousness, conscientiousness, intellect, knowledge, memory, thinking, reasoning, ethics, morals, logic, rationality, argumentation, interrogation, repudiation & other similar values & abilities among all the beings collectively are referred to as Apohan. This definition makes it a very vast branch of science.